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无铅化内层板之铜面处理

来源:网络整合 日期:2018-8-25

 一、 无铅焊接强热的灾难

  WUQIANHANJIEDUIBOHAN(Wave Solding)YUHUIHAN(Reflow)LIANGZHEZHICHONGJIBIJIAO,HUIHANSUOZAOSHOUDEZAINANYAOYUANCHAOGUOBOHANJIDUO。YUANYINSHIBOHANGUOCHENGZHONGDANMIANBANHUOSHUANGMIANBANSHENZHIDUOCENGBAN,ZHIYOUBANZIDIMIANYUTONGKONGZHONGZHIYINJIAOCAIHUIJIECHUDAOGUNTANGDERONGXI(SAC305ZHIRONGDIANYUEWEI220℃,BOHANCAOZUOWENDUZEDINGZAI255℃-260℃ZHIJIAN)。QIANMIANTUBOYUHOUXUPINGBOZONGGONGZHIJIECHUSHIJIANYEZHIYOU4-6MIAOZHONGERYI。JIANTU1ZHIYUDAYIQIQUDEHUIHANZESHIQUANBANLIANTONGZHUANGZAIZHILINGZUJIAN,BIXUZHENGTITONGSHIJINRUQIANGREDEGAOWENHUANJING,QIZONGSHIJIANZHANGDA300MIAOZHIJIU(SHIBANMIANDAXIAOYULINGZUJIANXINGSHIYUSHULIANGERDING)。JIANTU2QIEQICHAOGUORONGDIANDELISHI(Time About Liquidous;TAL)SHENZHIZHANGDA60-90MIAO(SHIBANTIDAXIAOERDING)RUCIQIANGREZHEMOZHIXIASHOUCHUANGZUIZHONGZHEDANGRANSHIMIANJIYUTIJIZUIDADEPCBLE!

 

 

  XIAYETU3JIWEIZHUMINGHANLIAOYEZHE“QIANZHUJINSHU”(SMIC)SHUOMINGYOUQIAN(LANSEHUIHANQUXIAN)YUWUQIAN(HONGSEQUXIAN)LIANGZHEZAIRELIANGFANGMIANDEJUDACHAYI。YOUCITUZHIQINGXIGAINIANKEZHI,SHANGXIAYOUYEZHEMENCIKESHIZAISHIYINGPAOKAICUOWUDEXIANGFAJIANLIZHENGJIEDEGUANNIAN。WUQIANHANJIEJUEBUZHISHIRONGDIANTIGAOLE34℃HUOSHIBIAOMIANCHULIJIAOWEIKUNNANERYI。SHISHISHANGHUIHANRELIANGDAZENGBIRANHUIDUIHOUDABANLEIZAOCHENGBAOBAN,JISHIMOUXIETONGGUO2-3CIHUIHANERWAIGUANSHANGHAODEBANZI,YIDANJINXINGQIEPIANXIBUGUANCHASHI,QIDUOCHUWEILIE(Microcrack)JUEDUISHICANBURENDUNANYIZHIXIN。QICHANPINDUIHOUXUZHANGQIZHIKEKAODUDANGRANSHITANTENANAN,TIANZHIDAOHESHIHUIYINBAOWUQIONGDEZAINAN。ZHIYUWUQIANSAC305DENEIJULITAIDA,HANXIXINGBUHAO,SHENZHIPILAOSHOUMINGQIANJIADENGQUESHI,YUDUOCENGBANDEYANZHONGNEISHANGXIANGBI,NEIZHISHIXIAOWUJIANDAWULE。

 

  RANERYIDANFAXIANWAIGUANBAOBAN,BANTONGSHUIDEYEZHEMENJINGCHANGZAICUCAODEQIEPIANHUAMIANYUCUOWUDEPANDUANXIA,DUOBANJIANGZUIGUOTUIJINEICENGTONGMIANYANGHUACHULIDEPINZHIBUJIA,HUOSHIBANZIYIJINGXISHUISUOZAOCHENG。SHISHISHANGBAOBANZHENZHENGDEYUANYINSHENDUO,ZHUYAOSHIYOUYUSHUZHIDENAIREXINGBUZU,RANERXIANGYAOQUANPANCHEDIGAISHANYOUTANHERONGYI。BIXUZAISHANGZHONGXIAYOUTONGLIHEZUOXIA,YI1-2NIANDESHIJIANCONGYUANWULIAODAOGEZHONGZHICHENGDEGAIBIANYUYINYING,FANGKEQUDEZHENZHENGDEGAISHAN。YIWEIGUAIZUISUOPEIYUZHENGCHAO,ZHISHIBAWENTITUILAITUIQU,ZENMEKENENGZHAOCHUZHENZHENGYUANYINYUCHEDIJIEJUE?BENWENJIANGZHITAOLUNNEICENGTONGMIANCHULIBIXUYINYINGGAISHANDEYUANLIYUZUOFA,QIYUWUQIANGEZHONGDATIMUZHINENGZANGEZAIYIBIANLE。

  二、有机铜面的应用

  CHIXUQIANGDIAOZHANGQIKEKAODUYUDIANXINGGAISHANDEGAOCENGSHUDUOCENGBAN,QINEICENGTONGMIANYIZHUJIANFANGQIHAIYUANXINGHEIYANGHUACHULI(Reduced Oxide Bonding Process) ERQINGLAIYUQITAGENGHAODEQUDAIXINGFANGFA。QIZHONGZHIYIJIWEI“YOUJIJINSHU”(Organs-metallic) SHIZHIFUZHELICUJINFA。CIFAYOUERYOUDIAN,QIYISHISHITONGMIANDEQIFUXINGZHUANGGENGJIAQIANGHUA,QIERSHITONGSHISHENGZHANGCHUYICENGKEZUOWEIZENGQIANGFUZHELIDEYOUJIPIMO。CUCAOQIFUDEDIXING,SHICHUZITEZHONGCHAOCUHUAWEISHIYEZHUANDUITONGCENGJINGGEJIANJIANGJIE(Grand Boundary)ZHIJINGONGERXINGCHENG。YOUYUGAOXINGNENGSHUZHIYUQITAKENAIWUQIANQIANGREZHIDUOZHONGXIANJINBANCAI,ZAIYAHESHIXUYONGDAOGENGGAODEWENDUYUGENGZHANGDESHIJIAN,YINERNAIXUANYONGYOUJIJINSHUSHIDEXINZHICHENG,ERDEYUXINSHIBANCAIBICIPIPEI,ZAOXIANCHANGJIANDE“HAIYUANSHIHEIYANGHUAFA”,QISUOSHENGCHENGDEZHENZHUANGJIEGOUXIANGDANGCUIRUO,ZAIGENGGAOWENYUGENGZHANGSHIJIANZHONG,BUMIANHUICHUXIANCUIDUANERSHIDEJIEHEQIANGDUWEIZHIDAJIAN。ZUOTU4JIWEIYANGHUATONGPIMODEXIANWEIJIEGOU。

  MOULEITESHUPEIFANGDECAOYEKEZHENDUITONGCAIJINGGEJIANZHIJIANGJIE,JINXINGXUANQUZEXINGDESHENRUWEISHI,BINGHAIKETONGBUJINXINGYANGHUAXINGPIMOSHENGZHANG。CONGSEMDIANJINGSUOJIANDAODEXIANWEIJIEGOUYUZAOXIANZHEJIONGRANYOUYI。JINGGUOGEZHONGJINGMIFENXISHUDEYANJIUHOU,CILEIYOUJIJINSHUTONGBUCANYUFANYINGDEXIANGQINGRENGDEYIJIEXIAO。QIBIAOMIANJIEGOUYIBUZAIZAIWANQUANSHIYANGHUATONG,ERSHITONGJINSHUDEMOUZHONGJIEJING,QIETONGSHIHAIBUMANLEYICENGGONGJIAJIAN(Covalent Bond)DEYOUJIPIMO,WEIYOUZAIRUCIJINGZHIDEDAPEIXIA,FANGDEYUGAOGONGNENGSHUZHIJINXINGQIANGLIDEJIEHE。

  三、结合原理与制程

  NEICENGBANTONGMIANYUYAHEJIAOPIANSHUZHIZHIJIAN,DEYICHENGXIANLIANGHAOJIEHEQIANGDUDEYINSUYOUER,QIYISHITONGMIANDECUHUAXINGSHIYUCUHUACHENGDU,QIERSHITONGMIANSUOPIFUGEZHONGPIMODEXINGSHIYUHOUDU,XIANSHIJIASHUOMINGYUHOU:

  3.1 粗糙度

  XIANXINGTONGMIANYANGHUAPIMOZHIBEIZHIQIAN,SUOXUYAOWANCHENGDETESHUWEICUCAODU,YIFEIYIBANXINGWEISHIJISUONENGDADAODECHENGJI,BIXUGAIBIANPEIFANGCAIKETIGAOWEISHISUOCHENGXIANDECHAOQIANGCUCAO,YEFANGDEYICOUGONG。BUGUOBINGFEISUOYOUXINGSHIDECUCAOJIEQUANRANYOUXIAO,LIRUMOUXIETONGMIANWAIGUANYISHIFENCUCAOLE,DANFUZHELIQUERENGRANHENCHA,XICHAYUANYINCAIFAXIANSUOCHENGXIANDESHIJUCUCAO(Macro-Roughness),ERFEIZHENZHENGXUYAODEWEICUCAO(Micro-Roughness),TONGMIANFUZHELISUOPOQIEXUYAOZHEJIWEIWEICUCAO。CIZHONGZHENXIANGZHINENGZAISEMDIANJINGDEFANGDA2000BEIXIACAINENGJIANDAO,QIEJINGCHANGHAIXUFANGDADAO5000BEICAIGENGQINGCHU。CISHIKEJIANDAOCUCAODEYANGHUATONGJIEJING,QIJIANFENGDAOJIANFENGDEJULIYUEWEI0.1-0.5WEIMI( um),ERQIFENGGUZHICHUIZHILUOCHA,GENGHAICHAOGUOFENGYUFENGZHIJIANDEKUAJU。CIZHONGCHUIZHILUOCHASHIDECUCAO,CAISHITONGMIANYUJIAOPIANSHUZHIZHIJIANFUZHELIQIANGRUODEGUANJIAN,SHENZHISUOTUQIDEXINGMAO(RUSANLINGZHUANG、CHIZHUANG、YUANZHUZHUANG、GOUZHUANGDENG)YEDOUHAIHUIYINGXIANGDAOFUZHELI。

  BUTONGLEIJIAOPIANZHIJIAOLIULIANG(Flow),YUDUITONGMIANZHIQINJIAORUNSHIXING(Wetting),YEDOUBICIYOUYI。MOUXIEJIAOPIANZHONGDEYETAILIUJIAOTI,KECHONGFENLIURUCUCAOFENGGUDEXIBUWEIZHI,MOUXIEYEJIAOZEWUFAQUANBUJINMAN。YIDANJIEMIANCHUXIANWEIXUWEIXISHI,JIANGHUIYOUSHIHOUXUSHIZHICHENGDIBIAOMIANZHANGLIDERONGYESHENRU,JISHIKANGSIQIANGDUHAIHENHAOXIA,CIDENGWEILIEYEKENENGHUIFASHENGFENHONGQUAN(Pink Ring)HUOCAFDEHOUHUAN。GUJIAOPIANZHONGZHILIUJIAOXINGYUTONGMIANZHICUCAOZHUANGKUANG,BICIBIXUYAONENGHUXIANGPIPEI,ZUIJIAFUZHELIHUOJIEHEQIANGDUZHIJIAJICAIDEYICHENGXIAN。

 3.2 铜面的转化皮膜

  XIANXINGNEICENGTONGMIANCHULIYIGESHIYANGHUAXINGPIMOWEIZHU,JIAOPIANSHUZHIZEYIQIHUAXUEXINGYUWULIXINGDENGSHUANGZHONGFUZHELIMIZHEYUCUCAODUBUTONGDETONGMIANSHANG,GAITONGMIANPIMODEHOUDUYUQIANGDUDUIYUJIEHELIJUNJIWEIGUANJIAN。LIRUYUANTONGMIANZHICUCAODUFEICHANGLIANGHAO,DANSUOCAIYONGZHIHEIYANGHUAPIMOQUECHENGXIANZHANGZHENZHUANGYICUIDEJIEJING,YIZHIHOUDUYUHOUZHEQIJIEHEQIANGDUFANERYUCHA。ZHIYUYOUJIJINSHU(Organo metallicZHIYOUJITONG)PIMOZHIXINSHIQUDAIZHICHENG,ZEXIZAITONGMIANSHENGZHANGPIMODETONGSHI,YEDUITONGMIANTONGBUJINXINGCHAOCUCAOSHIDEWEISHI。CIZHONGYOUJIYANGHUAPIMOZHITEXING,YIYUYUANXIANZHIWUJIYANGHUATONGPIMOYOUSUOBUTONG。XINZHICHENGFANYINGZHONGHUIXINGCHENGYANGHUATONGYUYOUJIWUXIANGHUPEIWEI(Co-ordinate)DEJIEGOU,QIESUODEZHISHENGCHENGWUYIBUZAIRONGYUCAOYEZHONG,CIZHONGQUANXINPIMOYICHENGWEIJIEHEQIANGDUDEYOULIJIZHI。CONGGEZHONGSHIYANHOUDEBIJIAOZHONGKEKANCHU,JISHITONGMIANZHICUCAODUXIANGTONGZHE,HANYOUJIWUPIMOZHESUOYAHEZHIDUOCENGBAN,QIZFANGXIANGGAOWENNAILIEDE(Td)YOUQIGENGJIU;QIENAIGAOWENPIAOXIJINXIDEXIAOGUOYESHIFENYOUYI。QIZHONGZHONGYAODEYUANYINJIUSHITONGJINSHUYUPIMOZHIJIAN,YICUNZAILEQIANGJINGHUAXUEHUDONGXING(Chemical Interaction)DEZUHE,YEJIUSHIYIXINGCHENGLEPEIWEIJIAN(Coordination Bond),ERRANGPIMOYUJIAOPIANZAIQIYUANZIJIEGOUZHONGJUNKEGONGXIANGPiDIANZILE。

  3.3 化学反应

  SHANGSHUZHIYOUJIJINSHUZHICHENG,SHIYIZHONGCAIYONGGUOYANGHUAWUYULIUSUANDEJIBENPEIFANG,JIANJUWEISHIYUSHENGZHANGPIMODEYAOSHUI,KELINGTONGMIANDADAOLIXIANGDEWEICUCAO(Micro-Roughness)JINGJIE,QIXIAOGUOYIYUANCHAOGUOYIBANXINGWEISHIYE。ERQIEHAINENGZAITONGMIANSHANGTONGBUZHANGCHUYICENGEWAIPIMO,ZAITOUGUOHUAXUEJIANJIEZHIFANYING,CONGERSHIDEFUZHELIDAFUTISHENG。CIZHONGGUOYANGHUAWURONGYEYAOTONGZHITONGSHI,YEYIBINGCHANSHENGXIALIEZHIYANGHUAFANYING:

CuO Cu2++2e- (-0.3419V)
H2O2+2H++2e- 2H2O (+1.776V)

  将两个半反应整理而成的全反应为:H2O2+2H++CUO Cu2++2H2O (+1.4341V)
  若再将硫酸导入时,又可得反应式如下:H2O2+H2SO4+CuO CUSO4+2H2O (+1.4341V)

  ZUIHOUYISHIZHIQUANFANYINGJIANGHUIXIAOHAODIAOYIMOER(mole)DESHUANGYANGSHUI,YUYIMOERDELIUSUANYIJIYIGEMOERDETONGJINSHU。SUODESHENGCHENGWUZEYOUYIMOERDELIUSUANTONG,JILIANGMOERDESHUIFENZI。CIFANYINGSUODEZHIZHENGDIANYABIAOSHIGAIZHONGFANYINGKEYIZIRANFASHENG,QIEDANGQIZHENGSHUZHIYUEGAOSHIFANYINGYEYUEKUAI。FANYINGSHIYOUBIAOSHIDANGLIUSUANFEICHANGCHONGZUSHI,SUOCANYUFANYINGDELIANGCHENGYUAN(H2O2JICUO)BICIJUNKEDEDAOCHEDIPENGZHUANGERGAODUWANCHENGFANYING。GUDANGSHUANGYANGSHUINONGDUZUGOU,YIJICHONGFENJIAOBANJIJIAWENZHIXIA,JIANGKESHIFANYINGSULVWEIZHITISHENG。QIEYOUSHANGSHIKEZHI,LILUNSHANGFANYINGBINGWUQITIFASHENG,RANERJIANGPCBSHIJIJINRUCAOYEZHONGSHI,QUEKEFAXIANBANMIANRENGYOUQIPAODEFUZHE。CIJIYIWEIZHEFANYINGXIAOLVBINGWEIDAODA100%,YINMOUXIESHUANGYANGSHUIFENZIJIECHUBANMIANHUIXIANXINGLIEJIEFANYING,ERSHIZHIZAODAOBUDANGXIAOHAODELANGFEI:H2O2 H2O+1/2 O2

  TONGCHANGSUANYEZHONGZHIYAOJIARUSHUANGYANGSHUI,DOUHUIDUITONGMIANJINXINGSHIKE。DANRUOJIARUMOUXIETESHUTIANJIAJI,ERSHIZHICHENGWEIZHUANMIPEIFANGZHIYAOSHUISHI,ZEBUDANSHIKEXIAOGUOGENGHAO,ERQIEYEGENGWEIWENDINGYUZHANGXIAO。QIZHONGZHUJISUIWEIZHIJIECANJIAFANYING,DANQUEKEBANYANYIZHONGCUIHUAJIERJIASUQIFANYING,HUOGAIBIANTONGMIANZHICUHUAZHUANGTAI。RUOLINGJIUQUDAIXINGZHICHENGERYAN,WEISHIDETONGSHIBINGHAINENGZAITONGMIANSHANGZHANGCHULINGYIZHONGPIMOLAI。CIWAIWEILEBIMIANSHUANGYANGSHUIZHIBUANDINGERRONGYIFENJIESHIXIAOQIJIAN,PEIFANGZHONGHAIXUJIARUMOUXIEANDINGJI(Stabilizers),YIJIANSHAOSHUANGYANGZHIFENJIEERYANZHANGQIXIAOLI。

  四、表面形貌改质剂与附着力促进剂

  YOUJIJINSHUSHICAOYEZHONGHANZHUANMIXINGDEZHUJI,BUDANRONGYIXIFUZAITONGMIANSHANGBINGQIEHAINENGCHANSHENGYIZHONGCIWEIMIJIDEWEISHISULV,SUOZAOCHENGTONGMIANCUCAODEXINGMAO,YUANCHAOGUOWUZHUJIZHESHUBEIZHIDUO。QIZHUYAODEYUANLIJIUSHIZHUANDUIZHETONGYUANZIJIEJINGGEZIDEJIANGJIE(Grain Boundaries)QUANLIJINGONG,YINERSUODEDAODECUCAOXIAOGUO,ZIRANYAOCHAOGUODUIJINGGEBENSHENSHIKEZHEGENGWEITUXIAN,CIZHONGZAOCHENGBIAOMIANTEBIECUCAODEGUOCHENGCHENGWEI“BIAOMIANXINGMAOGAIZHI”(Topograply Modification)。CILEIYOUJIWUDEXINGMAOGAIZHIJI,HAIKEZAIYANGHUAFANYINGZHONGYUTONGLIZIXINGCHENGPEIWEITI。SUOXINGCHENGDE“Cu+1/YOUJIWU”DEPEIWEITIHUIZAITONGMIANSHENGZHANGFUZHE,ERQIEHAIBURONGYUCAOYEZHONG。GUZHIWEIYOUZAICAOYEZHONGTIANJIALECIDENGKECUIHUAFANYINGYUCUJINPIMOCHENGZHANGDEZHUJIZHE,CAIHUICHUXIANZHEIZHONGSHENQIDEPIMO。CIDENGPIMOGENGNENGJINYIBUJIAQIANGYUJIAOPIANDEFUZHELI。ZAIMEIYOUGENGHAODESHUYUKEBIAODAXIA,BUFANGCHENGZHIWEI“FUZHELICUJINJI”(Adhesion Promotor)CIZHONGCUJINJITONGMIANBEIYANGHUADEGUOCHENG,FENWEILIANGDUAN(CuO Cu+1 Cu+2)JINXING,DANYOULESHUANGYANGDEXIELIXIA,QIFANYINGJIKETONGSHIWANCHENG,ERWUXUZAIDUIZHONGTUDEZHANGAIJINXINGKEFU,YUSHIYIBANRENGWEICHIKEXIECHENGCu。

  Cu2+。BUGUOCIZHONGLIANXUDEYANGHUAFANYING,RENGYOUQIBUYIPAICHUDEHUOHUAZHANGAI(Activation Barrier)CUNZAI。ZAOYEZHONGRUOYITIANJIALESHANGSHU“CUJINJI”DAODAMOUZHONGNONGDUSHI,ZEJIANGKESHIDETONGJINSHUDELIANGBUZHOUYANGHUAFANYINGDEYILIANXUWANCHENG。YIDANNONGDUWEIDALIXIANGFANWEISHI,ZEDIERBUZHOUDEYANGHUAYOUHUIHUIDAODIYIBUZHOUERWUFAYIQIHECHENG。CISHIRUOCHUXIANCUJINJIZHE,ZEZAIXINGCHENGCu+2ZHIQIANHUIYUCu+1GONGZUCHENGBURONGXINGDEPEIWEITI。HUANJUHUASHUOGAIYICUJINJI,SIHUYOUZHIZAOLELINGYIZHONGTUBUZHOUDEPIMOERJINFUZAITONGMIANSHANG。YOUYUYUANBENDEYANGHUAFANYINGSHANGWEITINGZHI,YUSHIBUFENDE“Cu+1/YOUJIWU”DEPEIWEITIHAIKEJIXUYANGHUACHENG“Cu+2/YOUJIWU”DELEIZHONG。DUOYUDEYOUJIWUHAINENGBUDUANDEXUNZHAOYISHIKECHULAIDECu+2,JINERYOUZUCHENGPEIWEITIERJINFUZAITONGMIANSHANG。CIDENGCUJINBIAOMIANXINGMAOSHENGCHENGDEYOUJIJINSHUPIMOYUANLI,KELIYONGSHANGTU6ZHONGDEJIANDANTUSHIERJIAYISHUOMING。